Seminar on HOTS (Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi – KBAT) and 21st Century Pedagogy

Seminar on HOTS and 21st Century Pedagogy – 3 March 2018 (UKM)

UM – Continuity Learning Center – Dr Zahari Othman (zahari_maths@yahoo.ocm), Profesor Imeritus Ishak Harun (Pedagogy KBAT).

1.    Diantara peserta kursus

  • Cikgu Saravanan – Seri Cahaya Shah Alam (11 tahun – math & add math tingkatan 4-5) – exam papers.
  • Cikgu Saraswati – Seri Cahaya Shah Alam (11 tahun – math & add math tingkatan 4-5) – dah guna lama konsep HOTS but not called it HOTS
  • Cikgu Nur – Seri Cahaya Shah Alam (11 tahun – bahasa tingkatan 5) – dah guna lama konsep HOTS but not called it HOT. Cuma bagaimana untuk implementasi dalam kelas.
  • Cikgu Nur – Seri Cahaya Shah Alam (11 tahun – kimia tingkatan 5) – dah guna lama konsep HOTS but not called it HOT. Students tak tau yang diajar ialah HOTS
  • Pondok Moden – Matematik Moden Tingkatan 4. Nak belajar bagaimana untuk implement dalam kelas.
  • Pn Azizah – Problem Solving. Metacognition of visual thinking. Thinking Block – Under Prof Dr Rohani UPM. Page – math as easy as 123.
    • Kenapa nitrogen 70% and oksigen 30%
    • -x- kenapa positif.

2.    Perkongsian daripada kursus

  • Lelaki mempunyai lemak yang kurang dipunggung berbanding perempuan. Sebab tu lelaki perlu bergerak hanya setelah 10-15 minit duduk
  • Budak lelaki tak suka warna oren
  • Now we are not managing the knowledge but managing the manager of knowledge – Tony Buzan
  • Fakta + Maklumat = Pengetahuan
  • Pengetahuan + thinking = ilmu.
  • Pelajar yang bagus (kebanyakan daripada sekolah kawalan + berprestasi tinggi) – only good for themselves. Because they have been drilling. Without understand the process (how) and why.
  • 4K+1N = kreatif, kritis, komunikasi, kolaboratif dan Nilai&etika mengikut acuan Malaysia.
  • Boarding school – ramai yang dapat A. Then bila diperkenalkan HOTS, maka kurang A. This is because they are go for drilling. Parents enforce for A and they got it because they do routine. But no lifeskills. Latih tubi asalnya daripada eksperimen haiwan –
  • No correlation between IQ and thinking.
  • KBAT ialah:
    • Soalan tidak berulang
    • Ada elemen jika – ?
  • Tidak semestinya ilmu itu diperolehi step by step ikut level taksonomi bloom. Ambil panduan sahaja – jangan rigid ikut step by step
  • Content and context – mana nak tekan? Guna context untuk tolong pelajar faham content. Contoh -3+2. Suruh pelajar gerak guna step.
  • Pedagogical Approach – problem solving.
  • I-think ialah KBAT. This is errors in thinking! I-Think consultation untuk 8 mindmap bayar 20 juta.
  • KPM terlalu bergantung pada McKenzie and UK Consultant – Harley (2011-2014). Bagi masa 5 hari
  • SISC – memantau semua mata pelajaran dan membimbing guru-guru terutamanya bagi sekolah berprestasi rendah (School Improvement Specialist Coaches) – under PPD dan PADU.
    • Buang VLE Frog, ithink, traffic light
  • Banyak intellectual arrogance yang menyebabkan rosak & benda tak jalan.

3.    Masalah untuk memupuk HOTS

3.1.           Cikgu dan budak diajar mengikut frame. 

  • Contoh; 1+1 = 2. Semua mesti ikut acuan
  • Tanpa mencari sebab (alasan-why) dan
  • Tanpa Bagaimana (how) untuk bergerak lebih ke depan
  • Proses tidak diajar – bila tahu proses baru pelajar tahu bagaimana untuk memperbaiki.

3.2.           Guru kurang menyoal

  • Menyoal hanya pada level asas.
  • Guru keliru antara buat soalan KBAT dengan mengajar pemikiran KBAT

3.3.           Guru tak ikut murid

  • KSSR guru ajar ikut subjek.
  • KBSR dulu ikut murid. Jadi cikgu boleh faham setiap pelajar dengan lebih baik.

3.4.           Masalah utama pelajar Malaysia belajar fizik:

  • Terlalu banyak drilling sehingga mislead concept – misconception terhadap subjek.
  • Tidak bertanggungjawab terhadap ilmu. Sibuk nak dapat jawapan sampai kalau boleh nak dapat skema – nak tunjuk kepada ibubapa.
  • Pengalaman salah – buat semantic (relationship) kabur kerana episodic (chunking).
  • Enhance passion bila interest rendah. Contoh; bagi ultraman (interest) untuk ajar pasal letup bangunan – gabungan afektif, cognitive and psikomotor.

4.    Culture of Thinking – Project Zero Harvard

4.1.           Thinking routine – towards culture of thinking – Habits of Thinking

  • What is thinking routine – 5 buah sekolah jadikan naka angkat culture of thinking.
    • Train cikgu 21st centry learning
    • Train budak-budak buat problem solving – thinking based learning dalam setiap subject

4.2.           Key persons in this field

  • Dr Amin Senin – nak buang ranking sekolah kerana nak ubah mindset.
  • Ron Ritchard
  • David Perkins – Problem Solving & Maths & AI
  • George Polyar – Stamford College – Corporate Sponsor 250K for 3 months course. Bukak NCTM (National Counsel….) untuk menyambung kerja-kerja Georga Polyar
  • Robert Swortz – from university of Masachussets – initial the idea of Thinking Based Learning

4.3.           Habit of thinking – by Art Costa.

  • Menjadi pencetus pemikiran – how to think better, how to think skillfully
  • 2 types of thinking
    • LOT – Lower order thinking – belajar melalui pengalaman. Tak payah train since semua orang boleh berfikir secara LOT. Contoh: Ini ialah RM10 – belajar 5 ringgit dan mesti bawak balik bakinya.
    • HOT – Higher Order Thinking – skills berfikir. Boleh diajar dan kena ajar mereka berfikir. Contoh: Ini ialah RM10 – tolong beli 3 jenis makanan berkhasiat dan kemudian bagitau apakah khasiat satunya.
  • Akademik di universiti lebih kepada content berbanding context. Contoh; electrical then only focus about electrical – kebanyakan academician tidak bergerak kerana focus hanya kepada content.

5.    UNDERSTANDING KBAT

5.1.           DEFINISI ASAS SETIAP ELEMENT KBAT

  • Kenapa belajar; to advance the state of the art. To improve kerja yang sedia ada. Sekiranya tidak berfikir sebegini – maka lepas habis PhD – buang semua pemikiran yang ada.
  • Ilmu ada element of metaphysics – beyond otak dan akal – iaitu philosophy (tasawuf). Kebanyakan orang islam sekarang caca marba kerana buang philosophy dalam keilmuan. Epistemology – asal usul ilmu. Bagaimana tercetusnya idea untuk munculnya sesuatu ilmu (e.g. punca kuasa dua punca daripada mana? Bagaimana -3 + 1 = -2?. German umur 10 tahun dah perkenalkan philosohy – sebab tu boleh hasilkan sesuatu yang hebat).

Akal -> thinking -> philosophy

  • Ilmu (knowledge) ialah:
    1. Content
    2. Pedagogi + 21st century.
  • Akhlak
  1. Iman
  2. Untuk menebarkan kebaikan sebagai pengabdian kepada Allah (taqwa). Since the source of knowledge is god. Niat untuk menjadi educator lillahitaala seperti Luqmanul Hakim. Sentiasa bersemangat untuk belajar.
  • Ilmu diperolehi melalui:
    1. Induktif thinking
    2. Ilham
  • Analogy reasoning (ilmu perbandingan – psikologi) – setiap murid perlu ada satu buku khas – compare current problem dengan apa yang telah mereka lalui sebelum ini.

5.2.           Pendidikan

  • Pendidikan mengikut Islam – membangun manusia yang beradab. Pendidikan ialah untuk melahirkan generasi yang dapat meningkatkan adab. Kira hilangnya adab maka lompanglah Pendidikan. Iaitu adab dengan:
    1. Dirinya sendiri – menggunakan ilmu untuk mengatasi nafsu. E.g. merempit, dadah, buang anak (terkekang Syariah – e.g. 5k & 5 tahun penjara).
    2. Masyarakat. E.g. pecah amanah, rasuah, tidak adil. Now is semakin ramai scholars Islamic tetapi semakin kronik penyakit social – lantaran error of knowledge. Ngap sahaja anything that can make money.
  • Persekitaran – buang sampah merata-rata, Korea dan Jepun lebih amanah. E.g.
  1. Ilmu – sekiranya dia seorang ahli akademik – bagi pelajar A dalam keadaan yang rapuh – tidak pemahaman yang kukuh terhadap ilmu. A hanya dengan latih tubi is no no no
  • Adab akan membentuk generasi yang ada pendidikan dan berilmu.
  • Pendidikan ialah teaching for understanding

5.3.           21st Century learning

  • 4K+1N – package evertything dalam pedagogy 21st Century Learning.
  • Gist – emphasize on visible thinking
    • Making awareness (metacognition), they know intention.
    • Making content knowledge visible to learners
    • Making teachers’ thinking visible to learnners
    • Making leaarners’s thinking visisible to themselves , their peers and the teacher
  • In the 22st century, the knowledge to confront new ways at looking at knolwedge.
  • Good pedagogy is about making studnet’s thinking visible need:
    • PS – Problem Solving
    • TBL – Team based Learning
    • TR – Thinking Routine

6.   Thinking

  • Akal -> thinking -> philosophy
  • What is thinking – thinking is to find as much data/information
  1. Find information – dapatkan sebanyak mungkin information. E.g. talk about whiteboard – then, lets them speak. Or, try to identify how many triangle in this big triangle?
    • Gather information – > Classify data -> Observation
      1. To solve the problem
      2. Identify the basic elements within the situation – triangle
  • Then classify the basic elements – small, big and medium triangle
  1. Lastly baru kira
  • Analysis
    1. Lookig at the dots and find meaningful relationship
  1. Pattern spotting
  • To Find implicit and important data/informaton

6.1.           Critical Thinking

  • The most important thing about critical is EVALUATING.
  • Then to evaluate, they need to analyze.

6.2.           Mathematical thinking

  1. Inductive reasoning- observation of data.
  2. Deductive reasoning
  3. Analogic reasoning

6.3.           Process of inductive reasoning (contoh from Prof Dr Zahari is about mengurat his younger wife)

  1. Observation of data
  2. Observe relationship between data
  • Looking for pattern
  1. Simplication of data
  2. Generalization – inductive generalization –
  3. Probable – calon
  • A need for proof example through –
  • Intellectual courage – to propose

6.4.           Deductive reasoning

6.5.           Analogical reasoning

7.    PROBLEM SOLVING

Merge PS + TBL

7.1.           Latih student buat analisis

  • Compare & Constrast
  • Analyze and Evaluate

7.2.           Teaching for thinking (modules)

Tak berkesan sebab methods ni tak visible to student.

7.3.           Teaching Based Learning – using Infusion of critical and creative thinking into content instruction

Teknik ni bagus berkesan untuk TBL

Ini ialah contoh infusion thinking dalam content

  • Ini ialah basic elements
  • Ajar critical thinking step per step – then as general – this is analysis
  • Do you like the way we solve the sittuation?

In case students tak boleh nak selesaikan masalah di atas, sebenarnya students kurang maklumat dan skill menganalisis masalah. Contoh, daripada soalan di bawah, cuba cari sebanyak information yang dia boleh daripdaa keadaan tersebut dan perlu latih mereka tentang skill menganalisis

7.4.           Collaborative Learning

8. Thinking Routine

8.1. Compare & contrast –

Identify the significant similarities & differences. Contoh apa beza antara ayam dan itik?

  1. Apakah Similarities?
  • Keduanya-duanya haiwan
  • Ada mata
  • Ada 2 kaki
  1. Apakah perbezaan di antara keduanya?
  • Itik ada bulu pelepah sementara ayam bulu sikit saja
  • Kaki itik bersambung sementara kaki ayam boleh cakar

iii. Bagi trend dan analisis –

  • Basic elements – anggota badan, bulu, kaki,
  • See the relationship between the basic elements
  1. Berikan kesimpulannya? – encourage divergent conclusion
  2. Kemudian tulis esei daripada semua keadaan di atas (i-iv).

Masukkan component asas language seperti grammar, kamus,

  1. Bagi hypotetical – what if
  • Contoh; what is sekiranya ayam dan itik ini diberi akal – apa jadi?

8.2. Determining parts-whole relationship

  1. Details – smaller part
  • then ask what happen if this part is missing. E.g. what happen if the eyes is missing – dont straight away ask the function.
  • Then ask what happen, if we change one part – if give impact to the wholism? Or what is the impact to the other part
  • Then ask, what if the function for each part?
  • How do the parts work together to make the whole what it is or operate as it does.

9. KBAT

  1. Definisi ialah lebih kepada proses dan sabar. Definisi SISC tentang KBAT:
  • Pentadbiran – PIBK – Persatuan Ibu Bapa dan Komuniti – bagaimana dia membina hubungan dengan pihak luar untuk manage sekolah. Betapa pentingnya PIBK.
  • Ko-kurikulum – as simple as kalau takde camping, bagaimana untuk pelajar teruskan camping?
  • PBC – membangunkan sekolah

2.Component of HOTS:

  1. Philosophy
    1. Apakah filosofi
      • Kesan/akibat daripada sesuatu keadaan
      • Drilling asal usul (ontology) sehingga kepada kewujudan (epistemology) sesuatu ilmu
      • About truth, values and ethics.
      • Cuba google – philosohpy for children (P4C)
  • Berkait rapat dengan kebijaksanaan.
  • Bermula abad 14 – filosofi diabaikan dalam ilmu islam. Then barat ambil ilmu ini dan dibela bermula daripada abad ke-16.
  1. Cara mengajar filosofi
    • Try to compare and contrast – bandingkan antara 2 kapal… then compare keadaan kapal kepada diri sendiri (this is what I want to do on engagement elements of goblin into engagement element when you represent the information)
    • Contoh: apa pandangan kamu tentang keadilan. Apa yang kamu rasa adil atau tidak adil?
  2. Humanity
  • German tak masuk dalam ranking.  It is about how much my people gain from the university – intellectual
  1. Cognitive
    • Elements dalam Cognitive
      • critical
      • logical
      • reflective – think pair share – encouraging reflection.
      • Metacognitive (is the awareness of one own cognition) – apa kamu buat tadi, kenapa kamu buat begitu dan bagaimana untuk kamu improve. E.g. Dahlia is hot tempered – need to muhasabah diri. What happen to you just now?, why you do that? How to improve?
      • creative thinking
      • to have intellectual traits such as – integrity, ethics, flexibility in thinking, intellectual humility (the opposite is intellectual arrogance)
    • Contoh – in any soalan – perlu develop metacognitive (kesedaran faedah pemikiran mereka)
      • Teknik penyoalan itulah KBAT – untuk develop student’s metacognitive
      • carik basic elements dahulu (not neccessarily keywords). Make sure they understand all the basic elements –
      • Then suruh dia buat gambarajah – visualize untuk mudahkan mereka faham. Then letakkan semua basic elements dalam rajah tersebut.
      • Sentiasa construct sehingga mereka faham keseluruhan keadaan.
  1. Mathematical thinking and other HOTS
  2. Strategy of Solving problem
  3. Communication in mathematics
  4. How to manage mathematical knowledge
  5. Mathematical modeling

10. Thinking Routine

  • Develop HOTS through questioning. What makes to say so? – lets them support them with reasoning + evidence.
  • Not only for critical thinking but at the same time for creative thinking.

11. Habits of Mind

12. What to do next on KBAT?

  1. Informatics in Society – buat buku –
    1. Design Thinking & Problem Solving Perspectives.
    2. Try to compare and contrast – bandingkan antara 2 kapal… then compare keadaan kapal kepada diri sendiri (this is what I want to do on engagement elements of goblin into engagement element when you represent the information)
  • Masukkan element design thinking, problem solving & systemic thinking
  1. Use visual to guide and standardize all the topics.
    1. Identify the problems/challenges/opportunities
    2. Identify the solution – give top down and bottom up
  • Execute one of the solution and get the data.
  1. Topik
    1. Goblin vs Cikgu Shaari – Engagement factors
    2. KBAT – penerimaan di Malaysia
  • Pekerja asing di Malaysia – 3 juta bangladesh di Malaysia
  1. Start up company – banyaknya duit terbazir
  2. Neelofa, Dato’ Seri Vida dan Alif Shukri – marketing strategy
  3. Buku KBAT kanak-kanak (Umur 7-9 tahun) – memupuk + infuse KBAT dalam storytelling
    1. Why (reasoning)
    2. How (the process)
  • Metacognitive
  1. Compare & contrast
  2. Part & wholism

Quartile means Q1 and Q2

MYRA I vs MYRA II

Apakah bezanya diantara MYRA I and MYRA II?
MyRA I- to maintain RU status

MYRA II – Sapa paling top – untuk dapat lebih dana RU (ikut ranking).

Active Learning using Interactive Tools

Directory of Learning & Performance Tools

Here is a directory that compile interactive tools online. This effort will support us to execute active learning in lecture. The directory contains over 1,000 entries in which categorized in four main areas – instructional tool, content devolopment tools, social tools, personal & professional tools.

Among the tools we can use:

1. Prezi – be careful, your audience can be dizzy

2. Padlet – organize and plan your padlet well – it can be your contents for eLPPT. CTL can give you extra marks if you really utlize your subject content here.

3. Kahoot – kahoot can lead you to edutainment ctl. There are a few of edutainment apps. We can download at CTL UTM

4. Powtoon – http://www.powtoon.com. It is a powerful tool for us to animate the presentation tools. This will lead us to UTM-MIT-Blossoms.

5. Wideo – create video online

6. Creaza – https://www.creaza.com. Creaza is a digital learning tool that enables students to work with different subjects and topics by creating mind maps, presentation, comic strips, movies and audio productions.

7. Storybird – http://storybird.com. Visual storytelling for everyone. A plafform for writers and bloggers.

8. be funky – https://www.befunky.com. Photo editing & graphic design made for everyone.

9. Coggle – a clear way to share complex information – mind map.

Last but not least – we can use powerpoint – but put more on active learning activities (e.g. blank page in the middle of class, unique elements after 20 minutes lecture, a game or interactive picture. I think the most relevant and cute one is actually the storytelling element to help students understand the gist of our lecture in a narrative and interesting way).

Formatting and Organizing Electronic Teaching Presentation

Handling students copies of your presentation – (e.g power point slides – hardcopy or elearning)

  • Before the class – they will be well prepared before the class and this can improve student learning, opportunities for active learning.
  • After the class – students underutilized the notes, they don’t pay attention during the class, refused to attend the class, fail to develop good note taking skills.”many students and teachers believe that writing down new information in their own fashion helps them learn”
    (Carrier et al, 1988).
  • Make up and organize your powerpoint.

 1. Prepare opening questions – please come out with positive and negative answer.

Reflect and relate this question with the topic we want to teach. And also relate with the

previous lesson.

2. Clarify the lesson’s objectives.

3. Ask students to think for 2 minutes

4. Ask students to stretch their body

5. Rearrange their positions from one position to others

6. Do active learning presentation

7. Pause every 12-15 minuters – what we should do?

Type of Teaching & Learning Activities (TLA)

Different methods for Active Learning:

  1. Group Discussion
    1. Jigsaw group
      – split the students into 3 groups
      – then give one task for each.
      – Each group will discuss the task and become expert of that task (30
      minutes).T
      he members of each group will become an expert for each task. 
      – The member can go to other group and teach their expertise.
      – Benefit: teach each other (remember well, develop communication skills)
  2. Peer thinking
  3. Sticky/loose note – at the end of the class – let them point me – what they don’t understand. -à then next class – terangkan balik konsep yang diorang tak faham à masukkan dalam forum elearning
  4. Forum – discussion
    let the students upload points (make sure bagi deadline) – engage dgn students – know how they respond
  • markah forum ini saya akan ambil kira apabila anda berada di atas pagar.
  • Bagi hadiah untuk setiap ‘forum congeniality’
  • You want marks – then produce evidence/do something.
  • Print forum – as an evidence to bagi hadiah or atas pagar for better grades.

Among other active learning strategies
1. Think-pair-share
2. Brainstorming
3. Execute activities using eLearning – next semester we can backup, copy and restore – then please do CQI for improvement.
4. Blank space at powerpoint – Von Risgoff Impact
5. Note check
6. Q&A
7. Two minutes paper – assessment.
8. One Minute paper – summarize the lesson today.